Probation and parole

  • (New) "Set up to Fail": The Impact of Offender-Funded Private Probation on the Poor Human Rights Watch, February, 2018“This report examines the use and impact of privatized probation services for misdemeanor offenses in four US states, and provides recommendations to protect against the abuses of criminal justice debt.”
  • Less is More in New York: An Examination of the Impact of State Parole Violations on Prison and Jail Populations Columbia University Justice Lab, January, 2018(This research brief examines the decline in the number of people in New York's state prisons and local jails, including Rikers Island, and the simultaneous rise in the number of people incarcerated for state parole violations.)
  • Too big to succeed: The impact of the growth of community corrections and what should be done about it Columbia University Justice Lab, January, 2018(This report discusses the consequences of the tremendous growth in probation and parole supervision in the United States over the past several decades, and argues that the number of people under supervision needs to be cut in half.)
  • Reducing Recidivism States Deliver Results Council of State Governments Justice Council, June, 2017“This brief from the National Reentry Resource Center profiles seven states in which recidivism has significantly decreased over the last decade according to several different measures.”
  • Delaying a Second Chance: The Declining Prospects for Parole on Life Sentences The Sentencing Project, January, 2017“By placing upward pressure on prison sentences for people with less serious convictions, excessive prison terms for lifers have contributed to a major cause of mass incarceration.”
  • Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis PLoS ONE, October, 2015“Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges.”
  • Paroling people who committed serious crimes: What is the actual risk? Citizens Alliance on Prisons & Public Spending, December, 2014(People who commit homicides or sex offenses have extremely low re-offense rates. This report argues that parole decisions should take into account this reality & aim to better repare people for release, not incarcerate them needlessly.)
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2013 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2014(At yearend 2013, an estimated 4,751,400 adults were under community supervision---a decline of about 29,900 offenders from yearend 2012.)
  • Realignment Report A One-year Examination of Offenders Released from State Prison in the First Six Months of Public Safety Realignment California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, May, 2013“The 1-year arrest/conviction rates of offenders released pre and post-Realignment is similar, but the 1-year return to prison rate was substantially less post-Realignment since most offenders in this cohort were ineligible to return on a parole violation.”
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2011 Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2012“At yearend 2011, for the first time since 2002, the U.S. probation population fell below 4 million.”
  • The Impact of CA's Probation Performance Incentive Funding Program Pew Center on the States, February, 2012“In the first year of implementation, the state probation failure rate declined from 7.9 percent during the baseline years of 2006-2008 to 6.1 percent in 2010, a 23 percent reduction in revocations.”
  • Probation And Parole In The United States, 2010 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2011“The state parole population declined by 0.3% during 2010. The number of adults on supervised release in the federal system increased by 4.9%, which contributed to the increase in the U.S. parole population.”
  • Denying parole at first eligibility: How much public safety does it actually buy? Citizens Alliance on Prisons & Public Spending, August, 2009(This report finds that substantially increasing the rate of parole on the earliest release date would reduce the prisoner population in Michigan without threatening public safety.)
  • Profiting from the Poor A Report on Predatory Probation Companies in Georgia Southern Center for Human Rights, July, 2008“The privatization of misdemeanor probation has placed unprecedented law enforcement authority in the hands of for-profit companies that act essentially as collection agencies.”
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2006 Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 2007“The number of adult men and women in the United States who were being supervised on probation or parole at the end of 2006 reached 5,035,225. In 2006 the combined probation and parole populations grew by 1.8% or 87,852 persons.”
  • New Jersey's Drug Courts, Special Probation and Proposal for Reform The New Jersey Commission to Review Criminal Sentencing, April, 2007“[P]rograms that combine comprehensive treatment, intensive supervision and judicial oversight cost substantially less than prolonged periods of imprisonment... the public benefits not only from the reduction in crime, but also from significant savings...”
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2005 Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2006“In 2005 the Nation's parole population grew 1.6%. This was an increase of 12,556 parolees during the year.”
  • When "life" did not mean life: A Historical Analysis of Life Sentences Imposed in Michigan Since 1900 Citizens Alliance on Prisons & Public Spending, September, 2006(Life sentences in Michigan did not always mean "no release." This report finds that parolable lifers' chances of being released from prison in Michigan have dropped dramatically since the 1960's.)
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2004 Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 2005
  • Breaking the Barriers for Women on Parole Little Hoover Commission, December, 2004“At the time of their arrest, half of these women were taking care of their children; two-thirds of those women were single parents.”(This report looks at incarceration patterns for women in California and proposes solutions for the problems identified.)
  • The high cost of denying parole: an analysis of prisoners eligible for release Citizens Alliance on Prisons & Public Spending, November, 2003“Although other important factors exist, the single biggest reason for prison growth has been changed parole practices. Far more people who have served their minimum sentences and are, by law, eligible for release, are being denied parole.”
  • Trends in State Parole, 1990-2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics, October, 2001“Forty-two percent of State parole discharges were successful”
  • Probation and Parole in the United States, 2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 2001“National correctional population reaches new high -- Grows by 117,400 during 2000 to total 6.5 million adults”
  • DWI Offenders under Correctional Supervision Bureau of Justice Statistics, June, 1999“More than 500,000 drunk drivers on probation or incarcerated in 1997”
  • Federal Offenders under Community Supervision, 1987-96 Bureau of Justice Statistics, August, 1998
  • Characteristics of Adults on Probation, 1995 Bureau of Justice Statistics, December, 1997

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